Russia is already under US sanctions for its 2014 invasion of Crimea, and the Trump administration expelled 60 Russians from the USA and shuttered the Russian consulate in Seattle in response to the failed assassination attempt.
One of the hardest hit was Aeroflot, the Russian state airline, which could lose its ability to fly to the United States as a possible outcome of the new sanctions.
Skripal and his daughter were poisoned by the military-grade nerve agent in the British town of Salisbury in March.
The Russian rouble has slumped to its lowest level since November 2016, hours after the USA announced new sanctions because of the poisoning of an ex-Russian spy and his daughter in the UK.
She accused Washington of picking the nerve agent poisoning of former Russian double agent Sergei Skripal and his daughter in Salisbury, England, as a "contrived excuse" for sanctions.
The Kremlin said the sanctions were illegal and unfriendly and that the US move was at odds with the "constructive atmosphere" of Trump and Putin's encounter in Helsinki.
Thursday, the Russian Embassy in Washington, D.C., said the new fiscal penalties are misguided, and called them "draconian, not backed by evidence" and "just another output in the US sanctions' assembly line". One of the victims, Dawn Sturgess, later died, leading police to launch a murder inquiry.
However, the department says it will exempt aid to civil society and humanitarian groups and allow exports needed for continued U.S. -Russia cooperation in space.
"Making a linking to these events (the British poisoning) is for us unacceptable and such restrictions like those passed by the American side earlier ... are absolutely illegal and do not correspond to worldwide law", said Peskov.
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Those slated for August are likely to include an export ban on sensitive national security technology and goods.
The new USA sanctions would cover sensitive national-security controlled goods, a senior State Department official told reporters.
Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharaova denied Russian involvement in the Skripal poisoning on Thursday and said Moscow is working on unspecified "retaliatory measures" against the United States.
Earlier Wednesday, State Department spokesperson Heather Nauert released a statement explaining the sanctions.
President Trump had already moved to expell a hundred Russian diplomats from the USA following the attack.
The official said the first tranche of sanctions, being imposed under a 1991 US law concerning chemical and biological weapons, would take effect on August 22.
The Russian ruble plummeted to its lowest level against the dollar since 2016 on Thursday as Washington prepares to penalize Moscow for a chemical attack in the United Kingdom earlier this year.
Mr Rowley told ITV News he had earlier found a sealed bottle of perfume and given it to Ms Sturgess, who sprayed the substance on her wrists. "The strong global response to the use of a chemical weapon on the streets of Salisbury sends an unequivocal message to Russian Federation that its provocative, reckless behavior will not go unchallenged", a spokesperson for the British Foreign Office said on Wednesday.