Many people were said to have lost their lives during the unfortunate incident, which occurred on Tuesday as workers across the country mark their day.
Two local residents who attended funerals for the victims said the death toll was much higher - and could climb further.
According to the state Commissioner of Police, Abdullahi Yerima, a suicide bomber struck at the mosque at around 01:00 p.m and a second bomber detonated a device some 200 metres (220 yards) away as worshippers fled.
There was no claim of responsibility, but the attack bore the hallmarks of Islamist radical group Boko Haram.
27 people are feared dead with 56 injured in twin suicide bomb blasts in the city of Mubi, Adamawa State, the Principal Medical Officer Mubi General Officer, Dr Edgar Sakawa says.
This is the second attack at a mosque in Mubi in six months, AP reported.
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Boko Haram has waged a campaign of violence to try to create an Islamic state in the north of Nigeria since 2009. Last November, a teenage suicide bomber attacked worshippers as they gathered for morning prayers, killing at least 50 people in one of the region's deadliest assaults in years.
It has been repeatedly targeted in deadly attacks blamed on Boko Haram since it was briefly overrun by the militant group in late 2014.
Mubi has suffered regular attacks by Boko Haram.
The Nigerian government had said since December 2015 that Boko Haram has been defeated.
More recently on Thursday, the jihadist group carried out an attack in Maiduguri, capital of neighboring Borno state, that killed four people.