The limit of two five-year presidential terms was written into China's Constitution in 1982 - after Mao's death six years earlier - by Deng Xiaoping, who recognised the dangers of one-man rule and the cult of personality after the chaos of the Cultural Revolution.
The abolition of the limit of two five-year terms for the presidency caps Xi's repeated maneuvers to cement his power.
On the global stage, Xi holds a reputation.
Mr Xi's second term as president is set to be confirmed at the end of the week. Should China face economic turmoil during his protracted rule, the president could be tempted to resort to Putin's so-far-successful strategy of leveraging on the country's nationalist sentiment, producing a "rally-around-the-flag effect". "Dissenting is becoming riskier".
Zhao Minglin, 32, a vice-president of an investment firm in Beijing, said it was easier for Xi to carry out his ambitious vision of raising living standards in China if more power were concentrated in his hands. China's benchmark Shanghai Composite Index has declined 1% since then, compared with a 1.9% decline in the MSCI Asia-Pacific Index.
The most recent amendment in 2004 protected private property and human rights and gave the Theory of Three Represents constitutional authority. They include inserting Xi's name alongside Mao's and Deng's, and enshrining in law his principles for a more assertive foreign policy.
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At the start of Friday's hearing, Matsumoto noted that she has reviewed 55 letters of support provided by the defense team. He was convicted past year of lying to investors in his hedge funds and manipulating shares a biotech company he founded.
The National Supervision Commission (NSC) will have a comparable status to the cabinet, the supreme court and the top prosecutor's office, consolidating existing graft-busting powers vested in various government agencies. The two votes of dissent apparently had official sanction to show a semblance of diversity. With renewed hope, China's observers have followed development of last week's Communist Party assembly with a great deal of interest.
"He just dug a huge hole for himself", said Li Datong, a former editor of the state-run China Youth Daily newspaper said to CNN.
The Communist Party, however, said the "speculation has no basis", and claimed that the decision was aimed at strengthening coordination among various power centres.
Xi's official titles are nice, but "core leader" of the party - which he was declared in late 2016 - puts Xi in historic company.
There has been no debate in Chinese media about the scrapping of presidential term limits but several critics did manage to send their concerns to some delegates.
"The amendment generates a level of uncertainty", Rafferty said before the vote. He already has no time limits for his more important roles as secretary general of the Communist Party of China and chairman of the Central Military Commission.