Chasing a victory target of 393 set by India today, Sri Lanka were all out at 251 for 8.
In Kolkata, against Sri Lanka in 2014, he was almost caught for 4 off the 17th ball he faced, reached his 20th run off the 35th ball, but accelerated slightly earlier to bring up his century in the 32nd over of the innings.
The captain, Thisara Perera went for plenty as the seamer gave away 80 off his eight overs that helped India reach a mammoth total of 392 for 4 at the end of 50 overs.
208 not out - came off 153 balls, with 13 boundaries and a superb 12 maximums.
While he might still miss out on the test side when India go with an extra bowler, Rohit is unlikely to lose focus like he did when he just came into the team. The Indian team was under pressure as we were 1-0 up.
"I keep telling myself that if an opportunity arises, I have to be ready for it".
Sharma's two earlier double hundreds were 209 against Australia in Bengaluru in 2013 and 264 against Sri Lanka in Kolkata in 2014. I just wanted to bat and bat.
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No other batsman has registered a score of 200 a couple of times in the 50-over format - a list that includes Sachin Tendulkar, Virender Sehwag, Chris Gayle and Martin Guptill - but Rohit now has three to his name.
"It's so hard to pick one because all three, like I was saying in the post-match presentation, it's so hard to pick one of these three because all three have come at crucial junctions of the game and at crucial time, different scenarios of the game". I am very happy about that part. "I've said it many times, but I honestly can not pick one", Sharma said of his three double tons. This one as well, we had to comeback in the series, it was my first captaincy stint, also as a batsman I wanted to do well.
Iyer also changed gears after completing his maiden fifty in just his second ODI, smashing the Sri Lankan bowlers around the park.
With plenty of rain in the region over the past few days, a damp wicket was expected to give assistance to the pace bowlers.
For India, Yuzvendra Chahal grabbed three wickets while commencing 60 runs, whereas paceman Jasprit Bumrah picked up two.
"Personally for me, it was very important as I was playing test cricket after almost 500 days", he told reporters in Nagpur last month. He has been working really hard with all of us.
The third and final match of the ODI series will be played at Visakhapatnam on Sunday.