Athletes in other Summer Olympic sports could compete only if certified by their respective global federations.
The Pyeongchang games run through February 25. Russian President Vladimir Putin has previously said it would be humiliating to compete without national symbols.
It said this confirmed the "unprecedented nature of the cheating scheme and, as a effect, the exceptional damage to the integrity of the IOC, the Olympic Games and the entire Olympic Movement".
The absence of Russian athletes would sap many events of top competitors.
IAAF clears only US-based long jumper Darya Klishina to compete in Rio, after 136 Russian athletes applied for exemption from the blanket ban.
The US Olympic Committee praised the IOC's announcement.
Tuesday's decision may have major consequences for another major sports event, next year's $11 billion soccer World Cup in Russian Federation.
The commission based its findings on an independent report by Canadian lawyer Richard McLaren that was commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency and published previous year.
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Three days after calling the claims "absurd", then Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko changes tack, saying he is "ashamed and sorry". The bans came as a result of an International Olympic Committee investigation into allegations of widespread doping among Russians and sample tampering by laboratory and security officials at the Sochi Olympics.
Released in two phases, the McLaren Report concluded that Russia's scheme involved more than 1,000 Russian athletes - and that it also included plans both for manipulating doping controls and for covering up the system.
Invitations will be decided by an International Olympic Committee panel chaired by former France Sports Minister Valerie Fourneyron. The Olympic anthem will play when Russian athletes earn medals.
Russian Federation has repeatedly refused to accept that a state-sponsored doping program existed. But Russia's success at those Olympics, according to former Moscow antidoping lab director Grigory Rodchenkov, came with some assistance behind the scenes. It wants the scientist extradited from the United States, where he is a protected witness.
To suspend ROC President Alexander Zhukov as an IOC Member, given that his membership is linked to his position as ROC President.
The IOC sanctioned the country for running a state-sponsored doping system, one which undermined the 2014 Sochi Olympics.
A broad investigation is being led by the Inquiry Commission chaired by Samuel Schmid, a former President of Switzerland.
Twenty-eight Russians competing in Sochi are implicated in cheating by McLaren. By Monday, 25 Russians had been disqualified from the Sochi Games and banned from the Olympics for life, and 11 medals were stripped.