Apple's actions were not illegal and the companies have since moved out of Jersey.
Together with Apple Operations International and Apple Sales International, the company made up the three Irish firms criticised by USA senators in 2013 for being "ghost companies".
"US multinational firms are the global grandmasters of tax avoidance schemes that deplete not just USA tax collection but the tax collection of most every large economy in the world", former corporate tax adviser Edward Kleinbard was quoted as saying by the NYT.
The news outlet and the non-profit investigative organization cited confidential records that were obtained by the German newspaper Suddeutsche Zeitung and shared.
Although it was aimed at Double Irish structures, the potential rule change would ban all Irish companies from claiming tax residency in a tax haven.
Until 2013 Apple had funneled earnings from outside of the Americas through Ireland, which enabled the company to pay as little as 2% in corporation tax.
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Apple has continued to avoid the heavier taxes that some countries would like to exact by moving parts of its company to Jersey, the Paradise Papers have revealed.
This was alleged by many to be a response to a 2015 change to tax law in Ireland, where its important subsidiaries, Apple Operations Europe (which holds its overseas income) and Apple Sales International (which used to own some of the company's IP rights) were based. The island charges no tax on companies' profits, ICIJ reported. "We don't stash money on some Caribbean island". "A coordinated legislative effort internationally will remove the current tug of war between countries over tax payments and ensure certainty of law for taxpayers". We do not depend on tax gimmicks.
"There was no tax benefit for Apple from this change and, importantly, this did not reduce Apple's tax payments or tax liability in any country", Apple said, stating it had "paid billions of dollars in US tax on the investment income of this subsidiary".
Apple on Monday responded to the claims, suggesting that the move was part of its corporate restructuring to comply with Ireland's rules and to ensure that "tax obligations and payments to the USA were not reduced".
But Apple has come under fire both in the USA and the European Union for its tax practices. The company reports its effective global tax rate at 24.6 percent. The cache of 13 million secret documents came from Appleby, a Bermuda-based law firm that helps businesses and wealthy individuals find tax shelters.
According to documents reviewed by the Times, when the European Union started talking about a crackdown on tech companies using Ireland for tax avoidance, Apple's lawyers allegedly began shopping to shift to a new tax-free subsidiary in the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Mauritius, the Isle of Man, Guernsey, or Jersey.