Maduro called the vote for a constitutional assembly in May after a month of protests against his government, which has overseen Venezuela's descent into a devastating crisis during its four years in power.
In a Thursday statement, the State Department ordered families of US diplomats at the embassy in Caracas to leave Venezuela in advance of a national vote that could upend the country's political order and worsen its ongoing meltdown.
More than 100 people have died in anti-government unrest convulsing Venezuela since April, when the opposition launched protests demanding conventional elections to end almost two decades of socialist rule.
Maduro's regime has forbidden protests through Tuesday, saying violators will face prison terms of five to 10 years.
Maduro said the new legislature - called the Constituent Assembly - "will be the space, the power of powers, the super power that will, so to speak, recover the national spirit, find reconciliation, justice, find the truth".
Caraquenos, as residents of capital city Caracas are known, woke to the sight of debris-strewn streets where demonstrators clashed with security forces during the week.
Maduro has described the election as the most important Venezuela has seen, and the Constituent Assembly a "card that will win this game".
The White House says U.S. Vice President Mike Pence has spoken with Venezuelan opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez about the political unrest wracking the South American nation. It says Maduro, backed by a loyal military, is moving toward autocracy in a bid to cling to power.
He said the new assembly would begin to govern within a week, with its first task in rewriting the constitution to be "a total transformation" of the office of Venezuela's chief prosecutor, a former government loyalist who has become the highest-ranking official to publicly split from the president.
The US and Russian Federation
The House had already passed the bill with a vote of 419-3. "I just don't think that's a good way to start off as president". Russian President Vladimir Putin denies the charges and objects to the passage of new sanctions against his country.
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He defended the orders to reporters and lawmakers and insisted that he indeed had been part of the decision-making process. I am pleased to inform you that I have just named General/Secretary John F Kelly as White House Chief of Staff.
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If he opts for a veto, the bill can become law anyway if two-thirds of both the House and Senate vote for an override. The Russia sanctions in H.R. 3364 are an unusual signal of disapproval of Trump from congressional Republicans.
The Organization of American States branded the vote illegal.
Freddy Guevara, an opposition lawmaker, said Maduro was "making the biggest historical mistake he could commit".
"I bought food to get through the next few days".
"People are desperately buying groceries while they can because who knows if we'll be able to keep buying on Monday", Nestor Escalante, a 50-year-old graphic designer, told Reuters outside the Always Fresh grocery store in Caracas.
Neighboring Colombia - a refuge for tens of thousands of Venezuelans fleeing the chaos at home - said on Friday it would not recognize the results of Sunday's election in Venezuela. Avianca, a Colombian carrier, cut flights indefinitely from Thursday.
Trump earlier this month said in a statement that Maduro is a "bad leader who dreams of becoming a dictator".
But an earlier effort Zapatero headed ended in failure.
Some in Maduro's administration have broken ranks with him, most prominently his attorney general. Two diplomats resigned this week in dissent: one at the United Nations and another at the embassy in Panama.