India sought relief from the ICJ "by way of immediate suspension of the sentence of death awarded" to Jadhav.
Jaishankar added that from India's point of view, if the court says that it has the jurisdiction, it will be quite an embarrassment for Pakistan in terms of the proceedings forward with the death sentence of Jadhav.
Earlier, Salve said Pakistan had denied India its 16 requests for consular access.
ICJ president Ronny Abraham, after hearing arguments from both sides, said that the verdict would be announced "as soon as possible" and the date "duly communicated".
The two neighbours - who last faced off at the ICJ 18 years ago when Islamabad sought its intervention over the shooting down of its naval aircraft - India took the Jadhav case to the world court, accusing Pakistan of violating the Vienna Convention and conducting a "farcical trial" for convicting Jadhav without a "shred of evidence".
India has said Jadhav was "kidnapped from Iran, where he was carrying on business after retiring from the Indian Navy, and was then shown to have been arrested in Balochistan on 3 March 2016". The ICJ has stayed the execution while the case is heard.
At the outset, Qureshi said India was invoking the jurisdiction of the court for "political theatre" and described as "bizzare" the description of Jadhav's trial as a kangaroo court.
Meanwhile, India's complaint about denial of consular access may not be watertight.
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Pleading the court to reject the appeal, Khawar Qureshi said under the Vienna Convention, the jurisdiction of the ICJ was limited.
India urged the court to pass directions so that Pakistan takes no action that might prejudice the rights of India and Jadhav till a decision is taken by the worldwide court.
Jadhav was arrested in the southwestern province of Balochistan a year ago and Pakistani officials claim he has confessed to spying for Indian intelligence services. "As far as the cover page of the passport is concerned, India sought consular access to the detained citizen to ascertain facts", sources said.
The UN Committee Against Torture, in its findings published last week, has expressed concerns over Pakistan government "authorising military courts to try civilians for terrorism related offences".
Dismissing India's contention that it invoked the jurisdiction of the court because of the "imminent" possibility of execution of Jadhav, Qureshi said the court was bound to settle disputes between countries peacefully and not waste time on issues sought to be raised for political objective. These cases include Paraguay versus the USA in which the court decided that the American government needed to take steps to give rights of access of a Paraguayan national. We have a long border with India where millions of people reside.
The facts presented by India establish the violation of all principles of United Nations charter and Vienna Convention because of the nature of the trial which destroyed any credibility or sanctity of the army court's decision sentencing him to death, he said.
Pakistan claims to have arrested Jadhav from its restive Balochistan province.